Reducing the Processor Overhead
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NOTE: These pages have not been updated since the introduction of FreeRTOS V4.0.0. V4.0.0 introduces the concept of co-routines which would
provide a different and novel solution to those presented here. The Tasks and Co-routines documentation
provides further information.
Solution #2 showed how a clean application can be produced by fully utilising the RTOS functionality.
Solution #3 showed how this can be
adapted for embedded computers with limited RAM resource. Solution #4 makes further modifications with the objective of
a reduction in the RTOS processing overhead.
A hybrid scheduling algorithm (neither fully preemptive or fully cooperative) is created by configuring the kernel
for cooperative scheduling, then performing context switching from within event interrupt service routines.
Solution #4 functions tasks and priorities
The critical plant control functionality is once again implemented by a high priority task but the use of the
cooperative scheduler necessitates a change to its implementation. Previously the timing was
maintained using the vTaskDelayUntil() API function. When the preemptive scheduler was used, assigning the
control task the highest priority ensured it started executing at exactly the specified time. Now the cooperative
scheduler is being used - therefore a task switch will only occur when explicitly requested from the application source code
so the guaranteed timing is lost.
Solution #4 uses an interrupt from a peripheral timer to ensure a context switch is requested at the exact
frequency required by the control task. The scheduler ensures that each requested context switch
results in a switch to the highest priority task that is able to run.
The keypad scanning function also requires regular processor time so it too is executed within the task triggered by the
timer interrupt. The timing of this task can be easily evaluated;
The worst case processing time of the control function is given by the error case - when no data is forthcoming
from the networked sensors causing the control function to time out. The execution time of the keypad scanning
function is basically fixed. We can therefore be certain that chaining their functionality in this manner will never
result in jitter in the control cycle frequency - or worse still a missed control
The RS232 task will be scheduled by the RS232 interrupt service routine.
The flexible timing requirements of the LED functionality means it can probably join the embedded web server task within the
idle task hook.
If this is not adequate then it too can be moved up to the high priority task.
Concept of Operation
The cooperative scheduler will only perform a context switch when one is explicitly requested. This greatly reduces the
processor overhead imposed by the RTOS [except for the fact that the idle task can no longer put the processor into a power saving mode?].
The idle task, including the embedded web server functionality, will execute without any unnecessary interruptions from the
An interrupt originating from either the RS232 or timer peripheral will result in a context switch exactly and only when
one is necessary. This
way the RS232 task will still pre-empt the idle task, and can still itself be pre-empted by the plant control task - maintaining
the prioritised system functionality.
The scheduler is configured for cooperative operation. The kernel tick is used to maintain the real time tick value only.
||Creates only two application tasks so therefore uses much less RAM than solution #2.
||The RTOS context switching overhead is reduced to a minimum - although more CPU cycles might be utilised by the idle
task which can no longer make use of power saving modes.
||Only a subset of the RTOS features are used. This necessitates a greater consideration of the timing and
execution environment at the application source code level, but still allows for a greatly simplified design
(when compared to solution #1).
||Reliance on processor peripherals. Non portable.
||The problems of analysis and interdependencies between modules as were identified with solution #1 are starting
to become a consideration again - although to a much lesser extent.
||The design might not scale if the application grows too large
Features of the RTOS kernel can be used with very little overhead, enabling a simplified design even on systems where
processor and memory constraints prevent a fully preemptive solution.
This example is a partial implementation of the hypothetical application introduced previously. The
FreeRTOS API is used.
High Priority Task
The high priority task is triggered by a semaphore 'given' by a periodic interrupt service routine:
void vTimerInterrupt( void )
// 'Give' the semaphore. This will wake the high priority task.
xSemaphoreGiveFromISR( xTimingSemaphore );
// The high priority task will now be able to execute but as
// the cooperative scheduler is being used it will not start
// to execute until we explicitly cause a context switch.
Note that the syntax used to force a context switch from within an ISR is different for different ports.
Do not copy this example directly but instead check the documentation for the port you are using.
The high priority task contains both the plant control and keypad functionality. PlantControlCycle() is called first
to ensure consistency in its timing.
void HighPriorityTaskTask( void *pvParameters )
// Start by obtaining the semaphore.
xSemaphoreTake( xSemaphore, DONT_BLOCK );
for( ;; )
// Another call to take the semaphore will now fail until
// the timer interrupt has called xSemaphoreGiveFromISR().
// We use a very long block time as the timing is controlled
// by the frequency of the timer.
if( xSemaphoreTake( xSemaphore, VERY_LONG_TIME ) == pdTRUE )
// We unblocked because the semaphore became available.
// It must be time to execute the control algorithm.
// Followed by the keyscan.
if( KeyPressed( &Key ) )
UpdateDisplay( Key );
// Now we go back and block again until the next timer interrupt.
The RS232 task simply blocks on a queue waiting for data to arrive. The RS232 interrupt service routine must post the
data onto the queue - making the task ready to run - then force a context switch. This mechanism is as per the
timer interrupt pseudo code given above.
The RS232 task can therefore be represented by the following pseudo code:
void vRS232Task( void *pvParameters )
for( ;; )
if( cQueueReceive( xRS232Queue, &Data, MAX_DELAY ) )
ProcessRS232Data( Data );
The Embedded Web Server and LED Functionality
The remaining system functionality is placed within the idle task hook. This is simply a function that is called
by each cycle of the idle task.
void IdleTaskHook( void )
static TickType_t LastFlashTime = 0;
// Check the tick count value to see if it is time to flash the LED
if( ( xTaskGetTickCount() - LastFlashTime ) > FLASH_RATE )
// Remember the time now so we know when the next flash is due.
LastFlashTime = xTaskGetTickCount();
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